The National Museum of Geology is a non-profit, didactic and scientific public institution under the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy.
The museum is counted as the largest collection of minerals in Mozambique due to the fact that it conserves many resources inside, it is located at Av. 24 de Julho and Av. Mártires de Mueda. The National Museum of Geology, MNG, with administrative autonomy and status of National Directorate, was created in 2001 with the aim of exhibiting raw materials, as well as industrial products important to the economy of Mozambique.
Until its creation, the MNG functioned as a section of the National Directorate of Geology and inherited the heritage of the extinct Freire de Andrade Museum, founded in 1940. The museum was closed in 1978 due to lack of space when the National Directorate was transferred to the building located in the 25 de Junho square. Thanks to the sensitivity and intervention of the late President Samora Machel, a new space was made available where the Museum is today, a building that at the time was known as Vila Margarida.
The exhibition was reopened by ex-president Joaquim Chissano, on September 21, 1992.The MNG currently has over 5000 samples, giving greater attention and attraction to gems (better known for precious and semi-precious stones), technically valuable industrial minerals and crystals, unusual in their dimensions and shapes.
The visit to the museum starts initially in Sala-1, with the exhibition referring to the formation of the land and some fossils from Mozambique. It stands out, in addition to being a large fossil specimen, a fossil from the group of sinascids (distant ancestors of mammals) called Niassodum mpfumakasi, found exclusively in the Metangula graben, over 250 million years old (Upper Permic).
In Sala-2, there is a model in relief of the geology of Mozambique in the scale of 1: 500 000. Existence of different types of rocks.
In room-3, there is a 50cm high rubelite specimen, considered the largest crystal in the world, extracted in 1956 in the exploration of rare metal pegmatites in Nahia, Zambézia Province. A part of this crystal is on display at the Smithsonian Museum, in the United States.
Sala-3A, presents macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of some rocks that occur in Mozambique. The relationship between rocks and minerals is also shown through explanatory schemes.
Subsequently, in Sala-3B, the museum offers excellent examples of the geometry of crystals, presenting didactic models that are easy to understand. One can also see a 45cm high smoked and milky quartz specimen, with the natural shape of a Siamese cat, collected in Muiane, Zambézia Province, in 1963.
Sala-3C depicts the color of minerals as an identifying property. The classification of minerals starts here.
Sala-3E, and a dark compartment, illuminated by an ultraviolet lamp that allows visualizing the fluorescence of minerals such as Zircon, Uraninite, Autunite, Fluorite and Torbernite.
In Room-4, there is the collection exhibition of minerals from Mozambique, the scales of hardness, density and an information panel on hydrocarbons. Particular emphasis is given to Pepita de Ouro collected in Manica, which together with other samples of native gold from Tete and Niassa, expose the country’s gold wealth. In the same room, some examples of Flogolite, Moscovite, Tourmalines of different colors and unique in Mozambique stand out for their large dimensions, rare in other Museums in the world.
In Room-5, finished products from mineral raw materials are displayed. Special highlights go to the showcase in the center of the room with jewels resulting from the cutting of gemstones from Mozambique, such as: Morganites, Aquamarines, Tourmalines, Emeralds, Amethyst Quartz, Topaz and Zircon.